ALLINGTON, Richard: Prayer Warriors: Crusading Piety in Rome and the Papal States, 1187-1291
Contact Details: firstname.lastname@example.org
This dissertation explores the dissemination of crusading spirituality to popular religious culture in the Papal States from the defeat at Hattin until the fall of Acre in 1291. A number of scholars have argued that the culture of the crusades in the thirteenth century was different from that of the earlier crusades in that it was more concerned with the internal reform of Christian society rather than external Islamic enemies. My research examines what this reform looked like in practice, taking the liturgies proposed by Gregory VIII after Hattin as its foundation. The introduction of these liturgies meant that all Christians could now participate in the crusades, but also opened the door for them to import aspects of the crusades into new areas of their lives as individuals and as a society. My investigation of these new areas incorporates the involvement of citizens of the Papal States in the Levantine crusades of the period, the use of the rhetoric of crusading piety in the wars in defense of the Papal States, the participation in communal crusading liturgies, the portrayal of the crusades in visual culture, and the incorporation of aspects of crusading spirituality in the private devotions of contemporary saints.
BINYSH, Betty: Living in Peace in the Latin East during the Crusades (1097 to 1291)
Contact Details: BinyshE@cardiff.ac.uk
This study aims to examine the nature, quantity and quality of peaceful relations between Latin-Christians and Muslims in the Holy Land at the time of the crusades; analyse to what extent they deliberately attempted to live in peace; and explore how and why peace was made and kept.
The work will take a less Euro-centric view by shifting focus from transient crusaders to the settlers who had to find a modus vivendi. It broadens the traditional approach by moving beyond Christian views of Muslims to concentrate on the relationship between them. The subjects under discussion will be definitions, methodology and historiography. Religion: the effect of Islamic ideas on jihad and sharia law on the type of peace possible. Treaties: peace agreements, truces, local and "international treaties'. Governance: condominium, territory and 'power-sharing'. Trade: merchant contact during and after military conflict. Pilgrimage: shared and contested sacred sites. Learning: international scholars, law and the courts, and conversion. Relationships: Richard, Saladin and al-'Adil; Francis, Frederick II and al-Kamil; Baybars and Qalāwūn.
BUCK, Andrew: The Crusader Principality of Antioch, 1130-1193
Contact Details: email@example.com
This study aims to discuss the significance of the Crusader principality of Antioch in the Latin East for the period 1130-1193. Antioch remains a considerably under-researched area, especially when compared to the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, and has often been marginalised. This thesis aims to rectify this by advancing from Cahen's great work La Syrie du Nord, and carrying on from where Thomas Asbridge stopped, in order to re-evaluate and reconstruct the narrative of the principality’s history and to provide a fresh understanding of its importance.
This thesis seeks to explore the role played by Antioch in the politics of Outremer, and also the extent to which it could utilise a policy of independence. A strong focus of the study will be the diplomatic and military interaction of the Antiochenes with other powers such as the other Crusader States, the Military Orders, Byzantium, the Muslim lands, Armenian Cilicia and the West. Moreover, it will include an exploration of internal power structures and the influence of a 'frontier mentality' on the Antiochene Latins.
DONNACHIE, Stephen: Reconstruction and Rebirth: The
Kingdom of Jerusalem 1187-1233
My thesis focuses upon the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the dramatic changes to the fabric of Frankish society that occurred in the wake of Saladin's victory at Hattin and the maelstrom of the Third Crusade. This particular area of the history of the Latin East has often been neglected and conveniently glossed over by historians, whose attentions have been drawn to the development and diversification of Crusading in other parts of Christendom. The same convenient and inadequate answers have continued to surmise this period. It is the intention of this thesis to shed new light on this rather crucial episode of Frankish history in the Latin East.
Despite the severe blow to the Franks as a result of Saladin victory at Hattin, the Kingdom of Jerusalem -- though weakened -- managed to survive for another century. It was in these particular years at the beginning of the Thirteenth Century that the foundations for that survival were laid. This thesis will examine precisely how the Franks came to build a realm from the ashes of their former kingdom, and the factors that contributed to their survival. In addition this thesis will examine how Frankish society came to change and evolve as a result of the trauma suffered in the wake of Saladin and the Third Crusade. No realm could have undergone such an experience without being fundamentally changed by it. The thesis will chart and analyse this metamorphosis, and compare the old kingdom to the new.
GIEBFRIED, John: Baldwin II and the Place of the Latin Empire of Constantinople in Thirteenth-century Europe
The goal of this dissertation is to better understand the relationship between Western Europe and the Latin Empire of Constantinople during Western Christendom, how the empire was understood, and how its rulers sought to portray themselves. In doing so, this dissertation will examine three central questions. The first is the question of imperial legitimacy. The office of Latin emperor of Constantinople lies somewhere between that of a Byzantine emperor and Levantine crusader king, yet it falls distinctly into neither category. This dissertation will examine to what extent the empire tried to position itself as both the heir to Byzantium and as one of the crusader-states. The second central question is how the Latin Empire of Constantinople functioned as a gateway between Europe and Asia, both as a passageway to facilitate crusades and as a means of contact to the expanding Mongol Empire. The final question is an examination of the dominant modern view of the Latin Empire of Constantinople as the medieval "sick man of Europe." This dissertation will explore this critique and examine to what extent it was shared by medieval contemporaries.
HALL, Martin: John of Garland's De triumphis
My necessarily multi-disciplinary project is to prepare a new critical edition and the first translation (into English) of De triumphis Ecclesiae by the Paris-based English cleric John of Garland (Johannes de Garlandia). This is a verse epic in 8 books, written in elegiac couplets over the period c.1220-1252. The first task is to establish a new text from the single surviving manuscript, building on Thomas Wright's edition of 1856. The accompanying research will include at least the following broad areas: John's lengthy coverage of the Albigensian and Seventh Crusades and the Mongol invasions; heresy as a theme and John's time at the studium of Toulouse; Anglo-French rivalry, including the Third Crusade, Bouvines and the reign of King John and Henry III's Poitou campaign; John's views on contemporary politics and society; medieval and late classical sources, especially Matthew Paris; John's engagement in broader fields of scholastic learning; his use of classical authors, and De triumphis as the literary chef d'oeuvre of a Latin grammarian; the spirituality and religious influences on De triumphis, including crusading; and, finally, John's intended audience and motivation for writing.
HALLIBURTON, Benjamin: Between Papacy and Empire: The Marquises of Monterrat in the Age of the Crusade, c. 1136-1226
My dissertation focuses on the marquises of Montferrat, an Italian noble family whose power and influence surpassed their regional bounds during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Though they loom large in the historiography of the Holy Roman Empire, the Mediterranean, and the Latin East, they have received little concerted attention from scholars, especially in English.
I intend to begin redressing that through a study of Montferrat participation in the institution of crusade during the reigns of William V (1136-1191), Boniface I (1192-1207), and William VI (1207-1226). This provides context for the marquisate's close relationship with the universalizing forces of papacy and empire, as described by narrative and charter evidence from the dealings of all three with local communes. An evaluation of these relationships as aspects of personal and dynastic strategy permits the achievements of Montferrat to be assessed as typical and atypical in contrast to European contemporaries as a whole, towards a better understanding of the crusade and the entities involved in it as a powerbase for the developing medieval nobility..
KOSKI, Philip: Arnau Amalric and the Cistercians, 1153-1225: Crusade, Heresy, and Religious Reform
My dissertation uses Arnau Amalric, abbot of Cîteaux from 1200-1212, as a prism to analyze the Cistercians’ thought and activity in crusades against infidels and campaigns against heretics. Among the most notorious leaders of the Cistercian Order, Arnau Amalric represents the maturation of Cistercian thought and participation within these ventures before the arrival of the Dominicans and Franciscans. Throughout his tenure as abbot, Arnau Amalric interacted with the leading figures of the day, combatted heresy in Languedoc, and guided the Cistercians through the Fourth Crusade, Albigensian Crusade and the victory at Las Navas de Tolosa. His career, therefore, is essential for understanding not only the Cistercian Order following the death of Bernard of Clairvaux, but also the changes in medieval spirituality during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Rather than a biography of Arnau Amalric, this project augments the current picture of Arnau Amalric and the Cistercians. Since, Arnau Amalric operated within a similar sphere as Bernard of Clairvaux—both preached against heresy in Languedoc, promoted crusades and acted as papal ambassadors—it becomes possible to assess the Cistercians’ indebtedness to Bernard, while also accounting for unique changes to the Order after his death. Utilizing untapped or underutilized sources involving Arnau Amalric and the Cistercians, it illuminates the Cistercians' interaction with medieval society, which helped the Cistercians accrue significant cultural capital and redefine the religious culture.
LEWIS, Kevin: A Study of the Internal Aspects of the
County of Tripoli during the Twelfth Century
I aim to shed new light on the county of Tripoli, arguably the most neglected of the so-called 'crusader states' established after the First Crusade.
Most dedicated studies of the county in the twelfth century have been conducted by Jean Richard alone. This can be contrasted with the kingdom of Jerusalem, much-studied by leading crusade scholars; the principality of Antioch, recently covered by Asbridge and featuring prominently in other works; and the short-lived county of Edessa, which has received attention from Amouroux-Mourad and MacEvitt.
I engage with Richard's specifically Tripolitan conclusions as well as the large body of scholarship on the Latin East more generally that has emerged since the publication of Richard's central work, Le comté de Tripoli sous la dynastie toulousaine, in 1945. I am particularly concerned with the issue of why, when, and if the county acquired political status and cultural identity distinct from its neighbours, Antioch and Jerusalem. I am reassessing Richard's emphasis on the supposed 'Provençal' character of the Frankish rulers by conducting an integrated study of trans-Mediterranean contact between Tripoli and Occitania, dynastic myth-making, the indigenous population, topographical and ecological factors, and Fatimid socio-political precedent.
LIPPIATT, Gregory: Simon V of Montfort: The Crusader as
Independent Baron, 119?-1218
The central question of my thesis centres on how Simon, as a rising baron and crusader, operated as an independent entity despite being a vassal of Philip II Augustus in the Ile-de-France. I want to explore how Simon demonstrated the strength of decentralised baronial power in a political environment traditionally considered as characterised by the increasingly centralised royal authority of Philip. The developing institution of the crusade played the greatest part in Simon's ability to act as his own man by allowing him to adventure outside of the geographical confines of the royal domain. I also hope to examine how Simon exercised his authority in his conquests in southern France, the specific aims of his policy there, and the reasons for his brilliant short-term successes and colossal long-term failure. Ultimately, I would like to demonstrate how early thirteenth-century French barons could advance themselves in ways that were not limited to royal favour (the Briennes and Lusignans are parallel examples), and of which the crusade was of great importance.
MYLOD, Elizabeth: Pilgrimage in the Holy Land
This thesis seeks to analyse and discuss the practice of Western Christian pilgrimage in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem during the period 1187-1291, from the loss of Jerusalem to the fall of Acre. It aims to investigate how pilgrimage changed from the twelfth century, and whether the shrinking size and increasing instability of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem had an effect on the numbers of pilgrims, where they went and the way they displayed their faith. The thesis will also consider what activities the pilgrims undertook during their stay, and to what extent they were influenced by the traditions of non-Western Christians. Both 'ordinary' pilgrims and the pilgrimage activity of crusaders will be considered. The thesis therefore aims to build up a comprehensive picture of all aspects of pilgrimage in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem during the period 1187-1291. The research uses a variety of textual sources, including charters; pilgrimage guides and chronicles; and the evidence of some material culture and archaeology.
This thesis explores the complex relationship between the chronicles of the early crusades and contemporary literature, in particular the vernacular French chansons de geste. Although the latter is admittedly complex in terms of dating, these two genres run somewhat concurrently, both in their primary genesis in the early decades of the twelfth century and then continuing onwards into later centuries. One particular focus is the relationship between models of leadership and heroism in both genres –- understanding how crusade literature influences ideas of heroism back in the 'mainstream' of twelfth century vernacular literature, and vice versa: how the chansons de geste influenced the writing of history on the crusades.
It is hoped that my research will include consideration of the difficulties surrounding the terms used to describe leaders, such as dux, comes, princeps and so on, considering their changing implications throughout the period, and the increasing institutionalisation of titles and lordship. Indeed, to what extent does the ad-hoc elected 'leader-in-war', so evident in early Norman historiography, survive long into the crusader era? Combining literary, philological and linguistic aspects into an historical study of source materials, as well as mapping important topoi and leadership traits, it is hoped this study will provide evidence for the changing and developing nature of heroism, leadership and kingship in the twelfth century.
RAJOHNSON, Matthieu: The Image of Jerusalem in the West,
from 1187 to the end of the Fourteenth Century
This Ph.D focuses on Western reactions to the loss of Jerusalem in 1187 –- after nearly a century of Latin domination -– and on the image of the Holy City thereafter. How did the loss of Jerusalem, which Westerners felt was still Christian by right, alter attitudes towards the city? The variety of sources I work with -– both clerical and secular, doctrinal and narrative -– means I will outline how Western representations changed over time and in space during the 13th and 14th centuries, and I will consider which actors and social groups took part in this evolution. I also endeavour to highlight the way images of the Holy City were used in spiritual, cultural and political discourses which constantly recreated it as if to better claim it –- a process of re-appropriation compensating for the loss of Jerusalem by its very image.
ROMINE, Anne: Crusade and Chivalry in the Fourteenth
Century: Philippe de Mezieres and the Order of the Passion
My dissertation focuses on the life and writings of Philippe de Mézières, whose remarkable career and literary production provide a unique window into late medieval knightly attitudes toward crusading. Philippe, the most influential crusade theorist of the fourteenth century, spent forty years working to establish a new knightly society, the Order of the Passion. The Order aimed to mobilize support for the crusade by organizing a core of fighters who were ready to commit themselves to the cause, finance their own passage to the Holy Land, work together to reconquer lost territory and then settle there permanently to populate and defend a new kingdom of Jerusalem.
In an era when the individual knightly desire to crusade was becoming an important driving force of the movement, Philippe attempted to revitalize knightly values and practices by drawing on the ideals of the crusade. This study will reassess the Order of the Passion’s message for the individual, based on a thorough study of all Philippe’s surviving writings, published and unpublished, pertaining to the Order. A fresh examination of Philippe’s vision for Christian knighthood will be considered in the context of other contemporary calls for the reform of chivalry, of which there were many, some from clerical sources and some from knights themselves. A more informed understanding of the Order of the Passion will cast new light on the relationship between violence and piety in the minds of the medieval aristocracy, and will address the larger question of how the duty to crusade helped shape knightly identity.
SINIBALDI, Micaela: Settlement in Crusader Transjordan
The project comprises an archaeological and historical study of settlement in Transjordan at the time of the twelfth-century Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Research questions focus on the themes of social and economic dynamics in a region which has been little studied in the past. Research is aimed at integrating the analysis of the better known castles with the other kinds of settlements, which still have not received the attention they deserve.
One of the tools used to identify these settlements is an analysis of ceramics from excavations and surveys, in particular from the Petra region, where several Crusader-period sites can be identified, in order to address themes of cultural interaction and trade. Other sources used for the purpose of reconstructing a picture of the Frankish presence in Transjordan are the available results from archaeological projects, to be integrated with some site surveys and mapping of structures.
Archaeological results will be compared to those drawn from a study of historical sources. The aim is to place the results obtained in the wider framework of the archaeological and historical picture of the Kingdom as a whole, as emerges from updated research.
SPENCER, Stephen: The Representation and Function of Emotion in the Sources for the Crusades, 1095-1291
This thesis investigates the emotions and affective displays that became associated with crusading – whether authors represented certain sentiments as appropriate or inappropriate for crusaders to possess – and the functions of emotion terms in the twelfth- and thirteenth-century sources for the crusades. It simultaneously aims to trace continuities and changes over time, as well as across source genres. Themes considered include an analysis of the sentiments and emotional expressions (such as weeping) associated with crusader spirituality, and the emotional personification of the crusaders’ adversaries. Furthermore, by charting uniformity and individuality in representation and function, it uses an analysis of emotion as a vehicle to enhance our understanding of the recorded history of the crusades.
VANDEBURIE, Jan: An Encyclopedia of the Holy Land.
Jacques de Vitry's Historia Orientalis and its Place in the
Medieval Crusading Society
In my research I investigate the background of the Historia Orientalis of Jacques de Vitry (d.1240), Bishop of Acre and participant in the Fifth Crusade (1217-1221). The Historia encompasses a general history of the Holy Land and information on the different local religions, geographical descriptions as well as information on local fauna and flora and a history of the Crusades up to the end of the Third Crusade and the death of Saladin. The book is part of a larger endeavor, the Historia Ierosolimitana Abbreviata, and has to be seen in the light of De Vitry's efforts for the reform movement under Innocent III and Honorius III and his participation in Lateran IV. Specific research questions in my thesis involve the background of De Vitry's oeuvre, the source material he used and the perception of his work in the Medieval West. The more than 124 copies of the Historia, preserved in manuscripts all over Europe, testify to its great popularity. By looking at the contents and spread of these manuscripts, it is possible to investigate the influence of De Vitry's masterpiece on the later Crusades, on later authors and on the medieval 'crusading society'.
WEBB, Daniel: Henry VI, Empire and
This thesis focuses on Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, from his early career as co-king through his death, placed within the wider context of Staufer crusading practices and understanding of empire and Weltherrschaft. It grapples with the unique contributions of German crusading and wrestles with the degree to which Henry VI was exceptional or was operating within the models of his more famous father, Frederick I Barbarossa, and son, Frederick II. In order to demonstrate this, I examine how the resurgence of Roman law and increasing importance of knighthood influenced Hohenstaufen understanding of empire and the emperor's prerogatives, and the consequences of this trend. The thesis addresses cooperation and conflict with the papacy, the Italians and the German nobility and how these interactions shaped imperial and crusading policies. Drawing on recent prosopographies and using a prosopographical database of my own construction I compare the participants of Barbarossa's 1189-90 crusade contingent with the forces used by Henry VI to conquer Sicily and the participants in Henry's crusade of 1197-8 in order to discern changes in patterns of familial behavior and loyalty to Staufer ideals and expeditions.
WILSON, Ian: The Laws of War and
The focus of the study is the custom and conventions of warfare during the crusades and to consider how they promoted and restrained violence and brutality. As John Gillingham and Matthew Strickland have shown, warfare in the Anglo-Norman world in the High Middle Ages began to develop a number of conventions that reduced the risks of warfare, at least for its aristocratic participants. The central questions for this project are: firstly, how far did these cultural conventions apply in transcultural warfare such as the crusades? Secondly, how did the crusaders' perception of their adversaries affect the conduct of war and did attitudes change following the foundation of the Latin States in the Levant? It is hoped that the research will include the following areas; chivalric culture and restraint; the role of leadership and the realities of warfare; the Church's role in promoting and restraining bloodshed; the relationship between cruelty and violence and the need to secure material and spiritual rewards; and finally the role of mutual comprehension in restraining the savagery of war.
WILSON, Sam: The Relationship between the Principality
of Antioch and the Kingdom of Cilicia, 1198-1268
In 1198 Cilicia was recognised as an independent state following the coronation of King Leon I. Cilicia's new status as a kingdom marked a significant change in its relationship with the principality of Antioch. For most of the twelfth century the Armenians of Cilicia had been living in the shadow of their Latin neighbours. After 1198, Cilician Armenians began to play a highly influential role in Antiochene politics, most notably in the war of succession that engulfed the principality. Even when that conflict was finally ended in 1219 with Raymond-Roupen's expulsion from Antioch, the relationship between the two states remained significant. When Latin rule at Antioch was brought to an end by the Mamluks in 1268 the principality was, according to conventional wisdom, effectively under Armenian control.
This thesis aims to examine Antioch's relationship with Cilicia and to assess whether the wars and alliances between the two states accelerated the principality's decline in the thirteenth century. The marriage strategies of Antioch-Tripoli and Cilicia will be analysed, while the role of the Military Orders and the Commune of Antioch will also receive significant attention. Furthermore, the effect of religion on Antiochene-Cilician relations will be considered. The main focus of this study is to determine what Antioch's policy was towards Cilicia and vice versa, evaluating the success of the approaches that were taken.
ZÖLLER, Wolf: Communities of Regular Canons in the
Crusader States, 1099-1291
The above-mentioned Ph.D thesis analyzes the ecclesiastical, spiritual and institutional history of the communities of regular canons of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Regular canons held an important role and performed manifold functions within the society of the Crusader States, serving at the holiest sites of Christendom, performing the liturgy and pastoral care for thousands of pilgrims, maintaining some of the highest offices of the kingdom by becoming bishops and patriarchs all while carrying out different political functions as diocesan and royal administrators, chancellors and counsellors. As such, they were accorded rich endowments from both laity and clergy in the form of privileges, rents, tithes and landed property, both in the Latin East and the Latin West, their daughter houses stretching from Poland to the Iberian Peninsula and from the British Isles to Sicily. In view of the wide-ranging activities the Jerusalemite regular canons deployed on both sides of the Mediterranean their history constitutes a theme of prime interest for the field of Crusader Studies, yet they lack the scholarly attention they deserve –- a research gap that this Ph.D project intends to fill on the basis of traditional text-based historical enquiry as well as archaeological and art historical findings. As such the thesis promises to yield comprehensive results that will shed new light upon the history of ecclesiastical powers in the Crusader States as well as enhance our knowledge of the latter's ties to the European West.